Sunday, 6 November 2016
Waste Water Treatment
“Wastewater,” also known as “sewage,” originates from household wastes, human and animal wastes, industrial wastewaters, storm runoff, and groundwater infiltration. Wastewater, basically, is the flow of used water from a community. It is 99.94% water by weight.The remaining 0.06% is material dissolved or suspended in the water. It is largely the water supply of a community after it has been fouled by various uses.2.Characteristics of waste water
?An understanding of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of wastewater is very important in design, operation, and management of collection, treatment, and disposal of wastewater. The nature of waste-water includes physical, chemical, and biological characteristics which depend on the water usage in the community, the industrial and commercial contributions, weather, and infiltration/inflow.3.Physical properties of wastewater
When fresh, wastewater is gray in color and has a musty and not unpleasant odor. The color gradually changes with time from gray to black. Fouland unpleasant odors may then develop as a result of septic sewage. The most important physical characteristics of wastewater are its temperature and its solids concentration. Temperature and solids content in wastewater are very important factors for wastewater treatment processes. Temperature affects chemical reaction and biological activities. Solids, such as total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), and settleable solids, affect the operation and sizing of treatment units.
?Solids. Solids comprise matter suspended or dissolved in water and wastewater. Solids are divided into several different fractions and their concentrations provide useful information for characterization of waste-water and control of treatment processes.
?Total solids. Total solids (TS) is the sum of total suspended solids and total dissolved solids (TDS). Each of these groups can be further divided into volatile and fixed fractions. Total solids is the material left in the evaporation dish after it has dried for at least 1h or overnight (prefer-ably) in an oven at 103 to 105°C and is calculated according to Standard Methods.
?Total suspended solids. Total suspended solids (TSS) are referred to as nonfilterable residue. The TSS is a very important quality parameter for water and wastewater and is a wastewater treatment effluent standard. The TSS standards for primary and secondary effluents are usually set at 30 and 12 mg/L, respectively. TSS is determined by filtering a well-mixed sample through a 0.2 mm pore size, 24 mm diameter membrane; the membrane filter is placed in a Gooch crucible, and the residue retained on the filter is dried in an oven for at least 1h at a constant weight at 103 to 105°C.
T.P.Sivanandan on February 11th, 2009