Thursday, 2 March 2017

Properties of various acids and bases



Properties of various acids and bases
The data in the following table (except MW) is approximate and should only be used as an estimate. Concentrations change upon exposure to air.
Reagent
Formula
Molecular Weight (g/mol)
Specific gravity
Normality of conc. reagent
Weight %
V (mL)*
Acetic acid (glacial)
CH3CO2H
60.05
1.05
17.45
99.8
57.3
Ammonium hydroxide
NH4OH
35.05
0.90
14.53
56.6

Ethylene diamine
C2H4(NH2)2
60.10
0.899
15.0
100
66.7
Formic acid
HCO2H
46.03
1.20
23.6
90.5
42.5
Hydrazine
N2H4
32.05
1.01
30.0
95
33.3
Hydriodic acid
HI
127.91
1.70
7.6
57
132
Hydrobromic acid
HBr
80.92
1.49
8.84
48
113
Hydrochloric acid
HCl
36.46
1.19
12.4
38.0
82.5
Hydrofluoric acid
HF
20.0
1.18
28.9
49.0
34.5
Nitric acid
HNO3
63.01
1.42
15.9
70.4
63
Perchloric acid
HClO4
100.47
1.67
11.7
70.5
85.5
Phosphoric acid
H3PO4
97.10
1.70
14.8
85.5
67.5
Pyridine
C5H5N
79.10
0.982
12.4
100
80.6
Sulfuric acid
H2SO4
98.08
1.84
18.0
96
55.8
Triethanolamine
C6H15NO3
149.19
1.124
7.53
100
132.7
* V (mL) = volume in milliliters needed to prepare 1 L of 1 molar solution (1 M)
Approximate pH for different concentrations of various substances
Reagent
1 N
0.1 N
0.01 N
0.001 N
Acetic acid (glacial)
2.4
2.9
3.4
3.9
Ammonia
11.8
11.3
10.8
10.3
Benzoic acid


3.1

Citric acid

2.1
2.6

Hydrochloric acid
0.10
1.07
2.02
3.01
Hydrogen cyanide

5.1


Potassium hydroxide
14.0
13.0
12.0
11.0
Sodium bicarbonate

8.4


Sodium carbonate

11.5
11.0

Sodium hydroxide
14.05
13.07
12.12
11.13
Sulfuric acid
0.3
1.2
2.1

Equivalences % / M / N and preparation
The following table lists equivalences between molarities, normalities and percent solutions along with volume of desired substance needed to make 1 L of desired solutions.
HCl
0.01 M
0.1 M
1 M
2 M
3 M
5 M
6 M
10 M
12.4 M
Normality
0.01 N
0.1 N
1 N
2 N
3 N
5 N
6 N
10 N
12.4 N
% equivalent
0.03%
0.3%
3%
6%
9%
15%
18%
31%
38%
V of conc reagent to make 1 L
0.81 mL
8.1 mL
81 mL
161 mL
242 mL
403 mL
484 mL
806 mL
1000 mL

H2SO4
0.01 M
0.1 M
1 M
2 M
3 M
5 M
6 M
9 M
10 M
12 M
15 M
18 M
Normality
0.02 N
0.2 N
2 N
4 N
6 N
10 N
12 N
18 N
20 N
24 N
30 N
36 N
% equivalent
0.05%
0.54%
5.4%
11%
16%
27%
33%
49%
54%
65%
82%
98%
V of conc reagent to make 1 L
0.56 mL
5.6 mL
56 mL
111 mL
167 mL
278 mL
333 mL
500 mL
556 mL
667 mL
833 mL
1000 mL

NaOH
0.01 M
0.1 M
1 M
2 M
5 M
10 M
15 M
20 M
25 M
27 M
Normality
0.01 N
0.1 N
1 N
2 N
5 N
10 N
15 N
20 N
25 N
27 N
% equivalent
0.04%
0.4%
4%
8%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
108%
weight needed to make 1 L
0.40 g
4.0 g
40 g
80 g
200 g
400 g
600 g
800 g
1000 g
1080 g

KOH
0.01 M
0.1 M
1 M
2 M
5 M
10 M
15 M
20 M
21 M
Normality
0.01 N
0.1 N
1 N
2 N
5 N
10 N
15 N
20 N
21 N
% equivalent
0.06%
0.56%
5.6%
11%
28%
56%
84%
112%
118%
weight needed to make 1 L
0.56 g
5.61 g
56.1 g
112 g
280 g
561 g
841 g
1120 g
1178 g

No comments:

Post a Comment

New ISO Standards Transition Workshop (Auditors) ISO 9001:2015 What has Changed?

New ISO Standards Transition Workshop (Auditors) ISO 9001:2015 What has Changed? new concepts are considered - more risk based thi...