Thursday, 10 August 2017

Paddy Cultivation: Different Steps Involved in Paddy Cultivation (5 Steps)

Paddy Cultivation: Different Steps Involved in Paddy Cultivation (5 Steps)

But, in general, paddy cultivation is quite distinctive and observes following steps:

1. Preparation of Field:

Paddy farmers used to get their fields ready before the rainy season. The weeds are cleared and the field is ploughed by buffaloes or tractors to a depth of few inches. Manures and fertilizers are added to the soil. The whole surface then remained covered with water of about 2.5 cm. The field is then ready for receiving seedlings from the nursery.

2. Transplantation:

Generally paddy seedlings are first prepared in nursery and then transplanting is done in the field after about 40 days. Although in some areas of India and Sri Lanka seeds have been sown directly in the field and the seedlings sprout when the rain comes. But yield of paddy from transplanting is greater than the direct sowing. The transplanted paddy also grows faster because of regular spacing and matures within a shorter period.

3. Field Maintenance:

Paddy fields also require regular maintenance, such as occasional weeding and thinning out the more crowded patches, level of water is to be maintained according to the growth and the fields are drained dry before the crop is harvested.

4. Harvesting:

The traditional harvesting system is either through a curved knife or a sharp-edged knife. It is very labour-intensive. Harvesting is done in the dry season, when the weather is sunny. Mechanical combines which cut and thresh are used in Japan.

5. Threshing, Winnowing and Milling:

After the paddy stalks have been gathered and dried for a brief spell, their threshing is usually done. By beating the sheaves against the bars, the grains are separated from the stalks. Now threshing machines have also been developed.
Winnowing is a process of removing the unwanted particles from the paddy grains. The simplest way is by pouring the paddy down from a height on a windy day to a large square mat on open ground. The grains fall to the mat while lighter chaff blows out. Sometimes hand-winnowing machines are also used.
Milling means removal of the yellowish husks from paddy so that white or polished rice is obtained. In a rice mill the paddy is made to pass between varying sets of huller or rollers till it is milled or polished.

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