Saturday, 14 January 2017

ROAD SAFETY WEEK 11TH JAN TO 17 TH JAN 2017 AT NFCL

THANKS TO OUR SITE IN CHARGE SHRI GVS ANAND SIR  TO INNOVATE AND AWARE WHOLE ORGANIZATION  REGARDING EHSQ 









VEHICULAR POLLUTION

INTRODUCTION:
The exhaust fumes coming out of the tail pipe of vehicles contains many polluting substances which is a major contributor for environmental damage and disease. One research study says that 2 million people are estimated to die prematurely each year from pollution related ailments. It is estimated that currently our country is losing over 10% of its GDP in costs associated with damage to the environment and degradation of the country’s natural resources.

  Air pollution and related health hazards caused by vehicles have reached an alarming proportion in the country. The number of vehicles had been growing at an average pace of around 10 per cent per annum and contributing around 50 to 60 % of the total air pollution in cities. This is mainly contributed by cars, two wheelers as they have old and ill maintained engines, in which nearly 30% of the fuel remains unburned.  



VEHICULAR POLLUTANTS:

The main pollution emitted in the automobile exhaust gases are carbon monoxide (CO), Lead Aerosol, Nitrogen oxides , sulphur Oxides and Heterogeneous groups of Hydro Carbons .Apart from this (0.01 to 1 micron)mists (2to 200 micron) and particulate matter (1 to 200microns ) are also formed due to incomplete combustion.



Effects of pollutants on Human Health:



·   Carbon Monoxide: Hinders oxygen supply from blood into the tissues as it combines with the iron in the hemoglobin and thereby replacing oxygen in the hemoglobin, leading to variety of ailments.

·   Repairable Particulate matter: 0.2 to 10 micron size of particulates matter can go directly into lungs causing bronchial problems and allergic asthma.

·   Lead: Has a deleterious effect on the human health. It attacks the blood, kidneys and central nervous system. It can cause anemia, kidney failure, permanent brain damage and finally death also.

·   Nitrogen oxide: Increased susceptibility to infections, pulmonary diseases, impairment of lungs function and eye, nose and throat irritations.



Effects on Environment:  

The pollutants such as SO2 & NOx form acid rain and affects some times, vegetation ,soil surface, darken sky through formation of smoke leading to limited visibility and corrosion of metals. The plants are damaged by acute injury in chlorophyll synthesis and thereby the net yield of crops/fruits gets reduced.



SOURCES OF VHEICULARY POLLUTION

Vehicular emissions originates from changes in driving cycle (transient of steady state) ,engine conditions     ( injection and aspiration techniques, maintenance, total mileage) fuel composition ( sulphur content, aromaticity, volatility), incomplete combustion and air/ fuel ratio . Main places where pollution originates from the decrease in air/fuel ratio, increasing load and temperature. Malfunction of engine devices, especially fuel injection system, increases the emissions of the main exhaust component.





POLLUTION CONTROL MEASURES

Following measures may be adopted to reduce the emission:

·   Adhering to fuel emission norms prescribed by GOI from time to time.

·   Modification of engine design to improve fuel combustion efficiency.

·   Exhaust gas recirculation for ensuring complete combustion.

·   Use of particle traps for removing particulars matter.

·   Use of low sulphur diesel

·   Use of alternate & cleaner fuels i.e., CNG

·   Improvement in traffic congestion.

·   Implementation of strict inspection / maintainance programs.

·   Avoiding idling at the traffic junction / signals.

·   Catalytic converter to reduce emissions for unburned HC and CO.

·   Use of unleaded fuel.

·   Adopting cleaner vehicle standards.

·   Introduction of efficient rapid mass transport systems.

·   Driving vehicle at  50 to 60 KMPH range.

·   Carpool Two – or four – can ride as cheaply as one.



VEHICULAR EXHAUST:

To control vehicular pollution, mass emission standards for various categories of motor vehicles are effective in India.



EMISSION NORMS FOR PASSENGER CARS

Norms
CO( g/Km)
HC+NOx (G/Km)
1991 Norms
14.3 – 27.1
2.0 ( Only HC)
1996 Norms
8.68 – 12.40
3.00 – 4.36
1998 Norms
4.34 – 6.20
1.50 – 2.18
India stage 2000 norms
2.72
0.97
Bharat Stage - II
2.2
0.5
Bharat Stage - III
2.3
0.35 ( combined)
Bharat Stage - IV
1.0
0.18 ( combined)

·   Bharat stage – IV norms applicable from 1st April, 2010 in the 13 cities.



EMISSION NORMS FOR HEAVY DIESEL VEHICLES

Norms
Cog/Kmhr
HCg/Kmhr
NOxg/Kmhr
PMg/Kmhr
1991 Norms
14
3.5
18
-
1996 Norms
11.2
2.4
14.4
-
India stage2000norms
4.5
1.1
8.0
0.36
Bharat Stage - II
4.0
1.1
7.0
0.15
Bharat Stage - III
2.1
1.6
5.0
0.10
Bharat Stage - IV
1.5
0.96
3.5
0.02



EMISSION NORMS FOR 2/3 WHEELER

Norms
CO( g/Km)
HC+NOx (G/Km)
1991 Norms
12 – 30
8 - 12 ( Only HC)
1996 Norms
4.5
3.6
India stage 2000 norms
2.0
2.0
Bharat Stage - II
1.6
1.5
Bharat Stage - III
1.0
1.0



PUC CHECK:



All vehicles need to undergo the pollution under control (PUC) test at the testing facilities authorized by RTO every six months and ensure the compliance with the emission limits.

   

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