Functions of Central Pollution Control Board :
Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and Rules thereunder
Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991
National Green Tribunal Act, 2010
The Central Pollution Control Board in consultation with State Pollution Control Boards has identified 43 areas in the country as critically polluted areas.
for more details click on: http://www.cpcbenvis.nic.in/industrial_pollution.html
Ambient standards in respect of noise for different categories of areas (residential, commercial, industrial) and silence zones have been notified under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. Noise limits have been prescribed for automobiles, domestic appliances and construction equipment at the manufacturing stage. Standards have been evolved and notified for the gen sets, fire crackers and coal mines. Regulatory agencies have been directed to enforce the standards for control and regulate noise pollution.
Impacts of the steps taken in Delhi: All regulatory pollutants show a decreasing trend in concentrations in Delhi. CO decreased to 3069 µg/m3 in 2000-2001 from 5450 µg/m3 in 1998. NO2 decreased from 75 µg/m3 in 1996 to 59 µg/m3 in 2000. Lead which is harmful especially for children, decreased remarkably due to phasing out of lead from gasoline. Another critical pollutant RSPM also shows a decreasing trend in Delhi.
The 17 Categories of the major polluting industries:
It is estimated that 75% to 80% of water pollution by volume is caused by domestic sewage.
The major industries causing water pollution include:
Distilleries, Sugar, Textile, Electroplating, Pesticides, Pharmaceuticals, Pulp & paper mills, Tanneries, Dyes and dye intermediates, Petro-chemicals, steel plants etc. Non-point sources such as fertilizer and pesticide run-offs in rural areas also cause pollution. Only 60% of chemical fertilizers are utilized in soils and the balance is leached into soil polluting the ground water. Excess phosphate run-off leads to eutrophication in lakes and water bodies.
In India, the major sources responsible for air pollution are transportation; fuel combustion in stationary sources such as thermal power plants; burning of fossil fuels like coal, wood, dry grass; construction activities; and industrial chimney wastes etc.
Permission like consent and/or Environmental Clearance (EC) or Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) clearance need to be obtained before setting up of an industrial unit and Consent/Authorization are mandatory before starting of the production. Running a polluting industry without the mandatory clearances is an offence and such unit will be liable to face stringent actions like closure and prosecution. Clearances are given for stipulated period and they need to be renewed before the term expires. Activities like contaminating the land by illegal dumping of hazardous wastes will invite penal provisions like fine and restoration of the contaminated land at the cost of the polluter, in addition to other steps.
The setting up of common facilities like TSDF (Transport, Storage, and Disposal Facilities), CETP (Common Effluent Treatment Plant), CBWTF (Common Bio-medical Waste Treatment Facility), pipelines etc. render it possible for units, particularly for small units, to reduce the cost of treatment of waste because of economy of the scale in operation. Besides, for every unit to set up all waste disposal requirements individually may not be possible due to shortage of land. This problem also can be resolved through common facilities, where small scale units to provide primary treatment only; and for secondary treatment, it has to become a member of CETP in cluster of industries.
A citizen can do much by adopting a code of conduct for himself as per various Environmental Laws and Rules passed by the Central and State Governments to desist from all activities which may pollute the environment. A citizen can also bring to the notice of the authorities such as CPCB, various State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs), and Pollution Control Committees (PCCs) about the violation of laws meant to protect environment. He can also sensitize the neighbourhood about the right practices for preventing the damage to environment through Neighbourhood Associations, Voluntary Organizations etc. In extra-ordinary situation, citizens have the legal right to approach the Court of Law.
The term sustainable development was coined in the paper “Our Common Future”, released by the Brundtland Commission. Sustainable development is the kind of development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Thus, sustainable development requires meeting the basic needs of all and extending to all the opportunity to satisfy their aspirations for a better life.