4.1 Housing facilities
4.3 Admittance to the laboratory
1. A Scientific Block, for analytical determinations, staff training and administration.2. A Storage Block, for receipt, preparation and storage of samples, which, both in case of soil and plant material, inevitably involves the danger of causing contamination. Also some dusty analytical work, e.g. the sieving of the sand fraction as part of the particle-size analysis, should be done in the storage block. For storage of bulk chemicals and waste.
1. Rooms for preliminary operations such as:
a. weighing of samples for analysis, including sub-sampling and fine-grinding when necessary,b. extraction, oxidation and freeze-drying for some analyses.2. Rooms for physical analysis of soils such as soil moisture retention, specific surface area, particle-size analysis (sieving should be done in the storage block or in a room for preliminary operations (Type la).
3. Rooms for general chemical processes involving the use of concentrated acids, alkalies or ammonia, where fumes may be evolved, even if these operations have to be conducted in fume cupboards and the room is air-conditioned.
4. "Clean" rooms where instruments can be used without danger of being affected by fumes or adverse atmospheric conditions. This includes the traditional "balance room" and rooms for specialized purposes such as atomic absorption (with fume exhaust), autoanalyzer, optical mineral analysis, and particularly X-ray analysis (diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy).
A particular requirement for these rooms is a stable uninterrupted power supply (UPS). In many places stabilizers are no luxury. Interruptions in the electricity supply are very annoying and costly: analyses and calibration procedures may have to repeated and computer files may be lost (make back-ups frequently!). Also, some safety and warning devices may become ineffective. When the interruption is prolonged, no work can be done at all except for some tidying up and paper work.
5. Storage room for chemicals and maintenance supplies for apparatus, with special precautions usually demanded by law for poisons and inflammable material (see also Section 4.2, Safety). Large amounts of inflammable liquids such as alcohol and acetone should be stored in separate sheds.
6. Workshop or service rooms for the central preparation and storage of distilled and/or deionized water, for general washing and drying of laboratory ware, for construction and repair of instruments and for glass-blowing.
7. Rooms for office administration, filing of records, staff meetings, seminars, reception of visitors, etc. These days, most analysts have or share a personal computer which should be placed in an office and not in Type 4 areas. Also the central lab computer (which may be a PC) should be situated in a separate (Type 7) room.
1. Room for receipt and registration of all samples, with sufficient bench and shelf space to cope with the input.2. Room for drying, crushing, grinding/milling and sieving of samples, with measures to exhaust dust from the air. If both soil and plant samples are being milled, this should be done in separate rooms.
3. Room for storage of samples, both before and after analysis, with adequate shelf space. Quality assurance requires that samples should be kept for a minimum period after analysis (at least a year, but often longer, unless they are of a perishable nature such as moist soil samples or water samples). This could imply that very soon the storage room is filled to capacity. In that case additional room need to be found, if necessary in another building. Proper registration of sample location in the storage place (room, shelf) is very useful. A laboratory notebook can be formatted for this and its use described (and prescribed) in a Protocol.
1. Analytical processes normally carried out at room temperature can be affected by differences in temperature so that an analysis performed in a "cold" room can give a different result to one performed in a "hot" room. The temperature of distilled or deionized water may be very different from that in the laboratory. The extraction of phosphate, for example, may be influenced by temperature. Control of temperature is possible on a small scale by the use of thermostatic waterbaths or immersion coolers but this is impracticable for shaking machines or other large scale routine operations. Temperature correction factors can, of course, be applied in some cases but these have to be established first and may be inaccurate for wide temperature variations.2. Many chemicals are affected by the temperature and humidity conditions under which they are stored, particularly if these conditions fluctuate. Thus, a substance may absorb water from humid air or effloresce in dry air or decompose at high temperatures, becoming either useless or needing purification.
3. Modem scientific instruments can be quickly and permanently damaged by changes in temperature and humidity, which often cause condensation, tarnishing and short-circuits.
4. The efficiency of all laboratory personnel is undoubtedly reduced by abnormally high or low temperatures or high humidity and by the presence of even moderate amounts of dust or chemical fumes in the air, thus affecting output both in quantity and quality.
5. Central air conditioning is preferred to the use of obviously cheaper alternatives such as individual cooling units or heaters in each room. Almost inevitably, corridors, store rooms and, often, sample preparation rooms are ignored and this may lead to undesirably wide differences in temperature and humidity between such places and analytical laboratories. For instance the moisture condition of a sample kept in a hot and humid store room (or a very cold one) may change significantly when taken to an air-conditioned laboratory. The effects of storage on the results of analysis of soil samples, as often noted in the literature, may vary with temperature and humidity.
4.2.2 Chemicals, reagents, and gases
4.2.3 Waste disposal
4.2.4 General rules to observe
4.2.5 First Aid
4.2.6 Fire fighting
1. All employees must receive and understand the locally applicable Workplace Hazardous Materials information guide or equivalent (if such a guide exists). In any case, the management is responsible for proper instruction.2. Develop a positive attitude toward laboratory safety: prevention is better than cure.
3. Observe normal laboratory safety practices.
4. Good housekeeping is extremely important. Maintain a safe, clean work environment.
5. You may work hard, but never in haste.
6. Follow the safety precautions provided by the manufacturer when operating instruments.
7. Monitor instruments while they are operating.
8. Avoid working alone. If you must work alone, have someone contact you periodically.
9. Learn what to do in case of emergencies (e.g., fire, chemical spill, see 4.2.6).
10. Learn emergency first aid (see 184.108.40.206).
11. Seek medical attention immediately if affected by chemicals and use first aid until medical aid is available.
12. Report all accidents and near-misses to the management.
13. Access to emergency exits, eye-wash fountains and safety showers must not be blocked. Fountains and showers should be checked periodically for proper operation. (Safety showers are used for chemical spills and fire victims.)
14. Wash hands immediately after contact with potentially hazardous or toxic chemicals.
15. Clean up any spillage immediately. Use appropriate materials for each spillage.
16. Dispose of chipped or broken glassware in specially marked containers.
17. Use forceps, tongs, or heat-resistant gloves to remove containers from hot plates, ovens or muffle furnaces.
18. Do not eat, drink or smoke in the laboratory. In many countries smoking in common rooms is prohibited by law.
19. Do not use laboratory glassware for eating or drinking.
20. Do not store food in the laboratory.
21. Telephone calls to a laboratory should be regarded as improper disturbance and therefore be restricted to urgent cases.
22. Unauthorized persons should be kept out of a laboratory. Visitors should always be accompanied by authorized personnel.
23. All electrical, plumbing, and instrument maintenance work should be done by qualified personnel.
24. Routinely check for radiation leaks from microwave ovens using an electromagnetic monitor.
25. When working with X-ray equipment, routinely check (once a week) for radiation leaks from X-ray tubes with appropriate X-radiation detectors. In some countries wearing a film badge is obligatory. However, this is no protection!
26. Use fume hoods when handling concentrated acids, bases, and other hazardous chemicals. Fume hoods should be checked routinely for operating efficiency. Do not use them for storage (except the cupboards underneath, which preferably have a tube connection with the fume cupboard above for ventilation).
27. Muffle furnaces must be vented to the atmosphere (e.g. via a fume cupboard).
28. Atomic absorption spectrophotometers must be vented to the atmosphere (if necessary via fume cupboard). Ensure that the drain trap is filled with water prior to igniting the burner.
29. Use personal safety equipment as described below.
a. Body protection: laboratory coat and chemical-resistant apron.b. Hand protection: gloves, particularly when handling concentrated acids, bases, and other hazardous chemicals.30. Avoid unnecessary noise in the laboratory. Noise producing apparatus such as centrifuges, or continuously running vacuum pumps should be placed outside the working area.
c. Dust mask: when crushing or milling/grinding samples, etc.
d. Eye protection: safety glasses with side shields. Persons wearing contact lenses should always wear safety glasses in experiments involving corrosive chemicals.
e. Full-face shields: wear face shields over safety glasses in experiments involving corrosive chemicals.
f. Foot protection: proper footwear should be used. Do not wear sandals in the laboratory.
31. Cylinders of compressed gases should be secured at all times.
32. Never open a centrifuge cover until the machine has stopped completely.
33. Acids, hydroxides, and other hazardous liquid reagents should be kept in plastic or plastic coated bottles.
34. Do not pipet by mouth.
35. When diluting, always add acid to water, not water to acid.
36. For chemicals cited for waste disposal, write down contents on the label.
37. Always label bottles, vessels, wash bottles, etc., containing reagents, solutions, samples, etc., including those containing water and also those you use for a short while (this while may become days!).
38. Extreme care is required when using perchloric acid, otherwise fires or explosions may occur. Work must be performed in special fume cupboards, certified as perchloric acid safe, with a duct washdown system and no exposed organic coating, sealing compound, or lubricant. Safety glasses, face shield, and gloves must be used. When wet-digesting soil or plant samples, treat the sample first with nitric acid to destroy easily oxidizable matter.Oxidizable substances (e.g. tissue, filter paper) should never be allowed to come into contact with hot perchloric acid without pre-oxidation with nitric acid. Do not wipe spillage with flammable material. Do not store on wooden shelves. Do not let perchloric acid come into contact with rubber.
39. Read labels before opening a chemical container. Use workplace labels for all prepared reagents indicating kind of reagent and concentration, date of preparation, date of expiry and the name of the person who prepared it. Good Laboratory Practice prescribes that all these particulars, including the amounts of components used, are recorded in the Reagents and Solutions Book .
1. Names and internal phone numbers of employees with First Aid certificate.
2. Telephone numbers of physicians and hospitals as well as the general emergency number.
3. First Aid kit
4. Eye wash fountains or bottles.
5. Safety showers (at least one per laboratory).
1. Stay calm, try to oversee the situation and watch out for danger.2. Try to find out what is wrong with the casualty.
3. Take care that the casualty keeps breathing. If breathing stops, try to apply artificial respiration by mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose insufflation. When unconscious, turn casualty on his/her side with the face tilted to the floor (support head by kind of cushion).
4. Staunch serious bleeding. If necessary, arterial bleeding may be stopped by pressing a thumb in the wound.
5. Do not move the casualty unless he/she is in a dangerous position (e.g., in case of gas, smoke, fire or electricity), then carefully move casualty to a safe place.
6. Put the casualty's mind at rest.
7. Call qualified help as soon as possible: medical service, a physician and/or an ambulance, and if necessary, the police. Do not leave casualty unattended.
|Burns:||Hold affected parts of the skin for at least 10 minutes in cold water. Try to keep the bum sterile and do not apply ointment.|
|Corrosive burns:||(e.g. by hydrogen peroxide): wash the affected part of the skin thoroughly with water.|
|Eye (corrosive) burns:||Wash eye thoroughly with tap water: use an eye fountain or eye-wash bottle or a tubing connected to a tap.|
|Hydrofluoric acid burn:||Wash the affected part with dilute ammonia (1-2%) or sodium bicarbonate solution.|
|Poisoning by swallowing:|
|1. Corrosive solutions (acids, bases):||Let the casualty drink one or two glasses of water to dilute the poison. Vomiting should not be induced.|
|2. Petroleum products.||Do not induce vomiting (the products may get into the bronchial tubes).|
|3. Non-corrosive solutions (e.g. herbicides, fungicides):||Try to induce vomiting. Swallow activated charcoal.|
1. Fire-proof blanket.2. Safety shower (at least one per laboratory).
3. Buckets with sand.
4. Portable fire extinguishers of essentially two types: CO2 or b.c.f. (halon, halogenated hydrocarbons) since these can be used without causing damage to electrical equipment. The extinguishing power of halon is about 6 times that of CO2! Water has the disadvantage that it conducts electricity, powder extinguishers (containing salts) cause damage to instruments.
1. Close windows and doors.
2. Give fire alarm (shouting, telephone, fire alarm).
3. Rescue people (and animals if present).
4. Switch off electricity and/or gas supply.
5. Fight fire, if possible with at least two persons.
PROT 051 - The replacement of a gas cylinder
SAF 011 - Safety Logbook (Laboratory)
RF 031 - Stock record of chemicals
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
|Model: PROT 051||Version: 2||Date: 95-03-14|
|Title: The replacement of a gas cylinder|
|- PROT||Acceptance delivery of goods|
|- PROT||Storage of gases|
|- RF||Logbook: Stock record of gases|
1. A cylinder may only be changed by well-instructed qualified personnel,2. Ascertain yourself of the identity of the gas,
3. Ascertain that cylinder was properly labelled upon receipt (with date and initial). Add to label date of opening and initial.
4. Take note of the particular properties and dangers of the gas.
5. Take note of applicable instructions of supplier.
1. Make sure all connected equipment is switched off.2. Close secondary valve in instrument room.
3. Close valve on cylinder.
4. Remove manifold from cylinder with (shifting) spanner of the correct size (do not use monkey wrench!).
5. Replace cylinder.
6. Connect manifold with (shifting) spanner of correct size (do not use monkey wrench!).
7. Open valve on cylinder and make sure connection is gas-tight. In case of any doubt, apply detergent solution to the connection with a brush: bubbling indicates a leak. Warning: never search for a leak with a naked flame! If a leak is suspected, immediately close main valve on cylinder and notify the management -which should decide what action should be taken to solve the problem (e.g., replace manifold or cylinder or both).
8. Check if pressure indicated by manifold is conform specification of supplier.
9. Close valve on cylinder when gas is not to be used for some time.
10. Enter replacement in gas/supply logbook.
11. Add to label of empty cylinder date of replacement and initial. Add label "EMPTY".
12. Notify the person in charge of gas stock (and of ordering new cylinders).
13. Notify any worker who might be waiting for the cylinder change.
|QA Officer (sign.):||Expiry date:|
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Page: 1 # ...
|Model: SAF 011||Version: 1||Date: 96-02-27|
|Title: Safety Logbook (Laboratory)|
Inspection / Problem / Action taken / Remarks
STANDARD REGISTRATION FORM
Page: 1 # 8
|Model:||Version: 2||Updated: 96-07-01||Sign.:|
|Title: Safety Logbook (Laboratory)|
|copies (locat.):||· central stare (1)||· fume cupboard (2)/(3)||· Steel boxes (4) / (5)||· shed (6)|
|1||M1084||Aluminium chloride, hexahydrate|
|2||M1063||Aluminium nitrate, nonahydrate|
|5||Ml 115||Ammonium acetate|
|7||Ml 145||Ammonium chloride|
|8||Ml 164||Ammonium fluoride|
|9||Ml 188||Ammonium nitrate|
|10||Ml 182||Ammonium heptamolybdate, tetrahydrate|
|11||M3792||Ammonium iron(II)sulfate, hexahydrate|
|12||M3776||Ammonium iron(III)sulfate, dodecahydrate|
|14||Ml 226||Ammonium monovanadate|
|15||Ml 192||Ammonium oxalate, monohydrate|
|21||M1717||Barium chloride, dihydrate|
|22||M0255||Diphenylamine-4-sulfonic acid barium salt|
|23||M1737||Barium hydroxide, octahydrate|
|24||K7375||Bolus alba (kaolin)|