Thursday, 13 April 2017



4.1 Housing facilities
4.2 Safety
4.3 Admittance to the laboratory

If an institute or organization establishes a laboratory and expects (or demands) quality analytical data then the directorate should provide the necessary means to achieve this goal.
The most important requirements that should be fulfilled, in addition to skilled staff, which was discussed in the previous chapter, are the supply of adequate equipment and working materials, the presence of suitable housing, and the enforcement of proper safety measures. The present chapter focusses on the housing facilities and safety.

4.1 Housing facilities

4.1.1 The scientific block
4.1.2 The storage block
4.1.3 Climate

Often, the laboratory has to be housed in an existing building or sometimes in a few rooms or a shed. On the other hand, even when a laboratory is planned in a new prospective building not all wishes or requirements can be fulfilled. Whatever the case, conditions should be made optimal so that the desired quality can be assured.
In the out-of-print FAO Soils Bulletin no. 10, Dewis and Freitas (1970) give an extensive and useful account of the requirements which should be met by laboratories for soil and water. As their recommendations to a large extent are still valid, also for plant analysis, with some adaptations they can be followed here. These recommendations can be modified for smaller laboratories but the main principles involved should not be ignored.
The general building lay-out should preferably consist of two separate blocks:
1. A Scientific Block, for analytical determinations, staff training and administration.2. A Storage Block, for receipt, preparation and storage of samples, which, both in case of soil and plant material, inevitably involves the danger of causing contamination. Also some dusty analytical work, e.g. the sieving of the sand fraction as part of the particle-size analysis, should be done in the storage block. For storage of bulk chemicals and waste.
Transport of prepared samples from the storage block to the scientific block should be through a passage or buffer room or, if the blocks are on two levels, by means of an elevator. There should not be direct connection (e.g. simply a door) between a room in which samples are crushed or milled and a room in which analyses are being done because of contamination by dust.

4.1.1 The scientific block

The scientific block may take various forms but ideally the building would contain separate groups of laboratory rooms as follows:
1. Rooms for preliminary operations such as:
a. weighing of samples for analysis, including sub-sampling and fine-grinding when necessary,b. extraction, oxidation and freeze-drying for some analyses.
2. Rooms for physical analysis of soils such as soil moisture retention, specific surface area, particle-size analysis (sieving should be done in the storage block or in a room for preliminary operations (Type la).
3. Rooms for general chemical processes involving the use of concentrated acids, alkalies or ammonia, where fumes may be evolved, even if these operations have to be conducted in fume cupboards and the room is air-conditioned.
4. "Clean" rooms where instruments can be used without danger of being affected by fumes or adverse atmospheric conditions. This includes the traditional "balance room" and rooms for specialized purposes such as atomic absorption (with fume exhaust), autoanalyzer, optical mineral analysis, and particularly X-ray analysis (diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy).
A particular requirement for these rooms is a stable uninterrupted power supply (UPS). In many places stabilizers are no luxury. Interruptions in the electricity supply are very annoying and costly: analyses and calibration procedures may have to repeated and computer files may be lost (make back-ups frequently!). Also, some safety and warning devices may become ineffective. When the interruption is prolonged, no work can be done at all except for some tidying up and paper work.
5. Storage room for chemicals and maintenance supplies for apparatus, with special precautions usually demanded by law for poisons and inflammable material (see also Section 4.2, Safety). Large amounts of inflammable liquids such as alcohol and acetone should be stored in separate sheds.
6. Workshop or service rooms for the central preparation and storage of distilled and/or deionized water, for general washing and drying of laboratory ware, for construction and repair of instruments and for glass-blowing.
7. Rooms for office administration, filing of records, staff meetings, seminars, reception of visitors, etc. These days, most analysts have or share a personal computer which should be placed in an office and not in Type 4 areas. Also the central lab computer (which may be a PC) should be situated in a separate (Type 7) room.
The rooms of Types 3 and 4 should be so arranged and equipped that no samples need to be taken into them, except those already weighed for analysis and contained in covered vessels. Although it may seem convenient to carry out all stages of an individual analysis in one room, this often conflicts with the need to keep delicate instruments away from dust, fumes and vibration and would frequently lead to unnecessary duplication of equipment.

4.1.2 The storage block

The storage block should consist of at least three rooms:
1. Room for receipt and registration of all samples, with sufficient bench and shelf space to cope with the input.2. Room for drying, crushing, grinding/milling and sieving of samples, with measures to exhaust dust from the air. If both soil and plant samples are being milled, this should be done in separate rooms.
3. Room for storage of samples, both before and after analysis, with adequate shelf space. Quality assurance requires that samples should be kept for a minimum period after analysis (at least a year, but often longer, unless they are of a perishable nature such as moist soil samples or water samples). This could imply that very soon the storage room is filled to capacity. In that case additional room need to be found, if necessary in another building. Proper registration of sample location in the storage place (room, shelf) is very useful. A laboratory notebook can be formatted for this and its use described (and prescribed) in a Protocol.

4.1.3 Climate

The air temperature of the laboratory and working rooms should ideally be maintained at a constant level (preferably between 18 and 25°C) and the humidity should also be kept reasonably steady at about 50%. In many tropical countries air conditioning of the whole building is virtually as essential as central heating in cold and temperate countries, while in countries having a continental climate with hot summers and cold winters, both air cooling and central heating are necessary.
The importance of supplying clean air, at a constant favourable temperature and humidity to all parts of a scientific laboratory building is too often neglected for financial reasons, particularly in tropical countries where air conditioning on a large scale during the hot seasons may be very expensive. However, if some form of air conditioning is not provided, the efficiency of the work done is bound to be reduced and other expenses incurred through a number of factors:
1. Analytical processes normally carried out at room temperature can be affected by differences in temperature so that an analysis performed in a "cold" room can give a different result to one performed in a "hot" room. The temperature of distilled or deionized water may be very different from that in the laboratory. The extraction of phosphate, for example, may be influenced by temperature. Control of temperature is possible on a small scale by the use of thermostatic waterbaths or immersion coolers but this is impracticable for shaking machines or other large scale routine operations. Temperature correction factors can, of course, be applied in some cases but these have to be established first and may be inaccurate for wide temperature variations.2. Many chemicals are affected by the temperature and humidity conditions under which they are stored, particularly if these conditions fluctuate. Thus, a substance may absorb water from humid air or effloresce in dry air or decompose at high temperatures, becoming either useless or needing purification.
3. Modem scientific instruments can be quickly and permanently damaged by changes in temperature and humidity, which often cause condensation, tarnishing and short-circuits.
4. The efficiency of all laboratory personnel is undoubtedly reduced by abnormally high or low temperatures or high humidity and by the presence of even moderate amounts of dust or chemical fumes in the air, thus affecting output both in quantity and quality.
5. Central air conditioning is preferred to the use of obviously cheaper alternatives such as individual cooling units or heaters in each room. Almost inevitably, corridors, store rooms and, often, sample preparation rooms are ignored and this may lead to undesirably wide differences in temperature and humidity between such places and analytical laboratories. For instance the moisture condition of a sample kept in a hot and humid store room (or a very cold one) may change significantly when taken to an air-conditioned laboratory. The effects of storage on the results of analysis of soil samples, as often noted in the literature, may vary with temperature and humidity.

4.2 Safety

4.2.1 Equipment
4.2.2 Chemicals, reagents, and gases
4.2.3 Waste disposal
4.2.4 General rules to observe
4.2.5 First Aid
4.2.6 Fire fighting

4.2.1 Equipment

Most accidents in laboratories occur as a result of casual behaviour and neglect, not only actively in the operations but also passively in the maintenance of appliances (old electricity cables, plugs, manifolds, tubing, clamps, etc.). Therefore, for each apparatus and installation such as water distillers, deionized water systems and gas cylinders, there should be a maintenance logbook in which all particulars should be recorded. Maintenance, calibrations, malfunctioning and actions to rectify this and other relevant remarks for optimal functioning should be detailed (without budget being felt as a limiting factor). If complicated sensitive equipment such as atomic absorption spectrophotometers and autoanalyzers are used by more than one operator, each user should record the operation in the journal to make him or her responsible for proper use. Details of this are laid down in SOPs which need to made for each apparatus (see Chapter 5).

4.2.2 Chemicals, reagents, and gases

The proper handling and storage of chemicals, reagents and gases, particularly the toxic and inflammable ones should also be laid down in SOPs. An example of such a SOP, for changing gas cylinders, is given (PROT 051). Such simple SOPs or instructions should also be written for the storage of chemicals. These may differ according to institute and country as the laws and regulations differ. In some countries, for instance, acetylene and nitrous oxide cylinders may not be situated in the laboratory and should be stored in a special ventilated cupboard or outside the building. Bottles with inflammable substances need to be stored in stainless steel containers. Working supplies of acids and ammonia can best be stored under fume cupboards with ventilated storage. Quantities of inflammable material such as acetone and alcohol in excess of 5 or 10 litre should be kept outside the building in a separate shed.
Somebody should be responsible for checking and keeping in order the special safety equipment such as first-aid kits, chemical-spill kits, eye-wash bottles (unless special eye-wash fountains are present), the functioning of safety showers, the presence and maintenance of fire extinguishers (the latter will usually be done for the whole institute). For the instruction of new personnel and to facilitate inspection, a floor-plan indicating all safety appliances and emergency exits should be available. Of all inspection actions a record should be kept which rests at least with the head of laboratory. One way of doing this is to prepare a Safety Logbook with at least one page for each item to be inspected regularly. An example of a page of this logbook is given as Model SAF 011 (which has the same lay-out as Model APP 041 for the Maintenance Logbook for laboratory apparatus (see Chapter 5).
Storing chemicals in alphabetical order is convenient but can only be done to a limited extent as several chemicals should not be stored together. This must be carefully considered in each case. For instance, oxidizing and reducing agents should not be stored together. Acids should not be stored with organic liquids. The chemical properties and hazards of each chemical in stock can be looked up in relevant handbooks. In addition, suppliers of chemicals have Material Safety Data Sheets available for their hazardous products. If a chemical has particular hazardous properties this is indicated on the label by a hazard symbol. Although these symbols are almost self-descriptive, the most important ones are reproduced here (see Fig. 3-1). Absence of a hazard symbol does not necessarily imply safety!
Each laboratory has its own specific range of chemicals. Once a proper partition into categories is made, this can be laid down in a Standard Registration Form which should be verified by a qualified chemist.
Both for efficient working and for inspection purposes a list of chemicals in stock and the place they are stored should be prepared and kept up-to-date. Copies of this list should be situated in or near all storage places so that any container or bottle removed can be tallied for easy stock-management (timely ordering new stock!).
An example of the first page of such a list is given on. A separate list should be made of the suppliers where each of the chemicals can be ordered.

4.2.3 Waste disposal

An important item to observe is waste disposal. In many countries the regulations as to waste disposal are very strict. Sometimes a record of incoming and outgoing chemicals is required. Some chemicals in use in soil and plant laboratories such as common acids, bases and salts may be disposed of in dilute form and need not necessarily offer a problem but local regulations vary and tend to become stricter. Care should be taken when a laboratory drain outlet "disappears" somewhere in the ground to some obscure destination or in a cesspit. Unless there is no other option, observe the rule not to dilute concentrated solutions in order to make it disposable:'dilution is no solution to pollution'!.
A number of chemicals deserve special attention as they may never be disposed of via the sink, such as all toxic compounds (e.g., cyanides), persistent mineral oils, chromates, molybdates, vanadates, selenium, arsenic, cobalt and several other metals and metalloids and their compounds. All these materials have to be collected in proper containers to be disposed of in a way prescribed by the local authorities. These have to be contacted about the appropriate actions to be taken and regulations to be obeyed.
Make an inventory of toxic compounds in the laboratory and prepare a Protocol for their collection and disposal. Usually a technician is charged with the responsibility for this.
Waste sample remains should never be disposed of by washing down a drain. Use proper receptacles for this purpose. Nevertheless, sinks and gullies should be fitted with removable silt traps which should be emptied regularly. In certain cases heavily polluted soil samples may have to be treated as toxic chemical waste.

4.2.4 General rules to observe

The "Methods manual for forest soil and plant analysis" (Kalra and Maynard, 1991) gives a useful list of various points to improve safety in a laboratory. With some modifications, this list is reproduced here (with permission). It is suggested that each laboratory adapts and moulds this list into a SOP called "Good Laboratory Behaviour" or "General Laboratory Rules".
1. All employees must receive and understand the locally applicable Workplace Hazardous Materials information guide or equivalent (if such a guide exists). In any case, the management is responsible for proper instruction.2. Develop a positive attitude toward laboratory safety: prevention is better than cure.
3. Observe normal laboratory safety practices.
4. Good housekeeping is extremely important. Maintain a safe, clean work environment.
5. You may work hard, but never in haste.
6. Follow the safety precautions provided by the manufacturer when operating instruments.
7. Monitor instruments while they are operating.
8. Avoid working alone. If you must work alone, have someone contact you periodically.
9. Learn what to do in case of emergencies (e.g., fire, chemical spill, see 4.2.6).
10. Learn emergency first aid (see
11. Seek medical attention immediately if affected by chemicals and use first aid until medical aid is available.
12. Report all accidents and near-misses to the management.
13. Access to emergency exits, eye-wash fountains and safety showers must not be blocked. Fountains and showers should be checked periodically for proper operation. (Safety showers are used for chemical spills and fire victims.)
14. Wash hands immediately after contact with potentially hazardous or toxic chemicals.
15. Clean up any spillage immediately. Use appropriate materials for each spillage.
16. Dispose of chipped or broken glassware in specially marked containers.
17. Use forceps, tongs, or heat-resistant gloves to remove containers from hot plates, ovens or muffle furnaces.
18. Do not eat, drink or smoke in the laboratory. In many countries smoking in common rooms is prohibited by law.
19. Do not use laboratory glassware for eating or drinking.
20. Do not store food in the laboratory.
21. Telephone calls to a laboratory should be regarded as improper disturbance and therefore be restricted to urgent cases.
22. Unauthorized persons should be kept out of a laboratory. Visitors should always be accompanied by authorized personnel.
23. All electrical, plumbing, and instrument maintenance work should be done by qualified personnel.
24. Routinely check for radiation leaks from microwave ovens using an electromagnetic monitor.
25. When working with X-ray equipment, routinely check (once a week) for radiation leaks from X-ray tubes with appropriate X-radiation detectors. In some countries wearing a film badge is obligatory. However, this is no protection!
26. Use fume hoods when handling concentrated acids, bases, and other hazardous chemicals. Fume hoods should be checked routinely for operating efficiency. Do not use them for storage (except the cupboards underneath, which preferably have a tube connection with the fume cupboard above for ventilation).
27. Muffle furnaces must be vented to the atmosphere (e.g. via a fume cupboard).
28. Atomic absorption spectrophotometers must be vented to the atmosphere (if necessary via fume cupboard). Ensure that the drain trap is filled with water prior to igniting the burner.
29. Use personal safety equipment as described below.

a. Body protection: laboratory coat and chemical-resistant apron.b. Hand protection: gloves, particularly when handling concentrated acids, bases, and other hazardous chemicals.
c. Dust mask: when crushing or milling/grinding samples, etc.
d. Eye protection: safety glasses with side shields. Persons wearing contact lenses should always wear safety glasses in experiments involving corrosive chemicals.
e. Full-face shields: wear face shields over safety glasses in experiments involving corrosive chemicals.
f. Foot protection: proper footwear should be used. Do not wear sandals in the laboratory.
30. Avoid unnecessary noise in the laboratory. Noise producing apparatus such as centrifuges, or continuously running vacuum pumps should be placed outside the working area.
31. Cylinders of compressed gases should be secured at all times.
32. Never open a centrifuge cover until the machine has stopped completely.
33. Acids, hydroxides, and other hazardous liquid reagents should be kept in plastic or plastic coated bottles.
34. Do not pipet by mouth.
35. When diluting, always add acid to water, not water to acid.
36. For chemicals cited for waste disposal, write down contents on the label.
37. Always label bottles, vessels, wash bottles, etc., containing reagents, solutions, samples, etc., including those containing water and also those you use for a short while (this while may become days!).
38. Extreme care is required when using perchloric acid, otherwise fires or explosions may occur. Work must be performed in special fume cupboards, certified as perchloric acid safe, with a duct washdown system and no exposed organic coating, sealing compound, or lubricant. Safety glasses, face shield, and gloves must be used. When wet-digesting soil or plant samples, treat the sample first with nitric acid to destroy easily oxidizable matter.Oxidizable substances (e.g. tissue, filter paper) should never be allowed to come into contact with hot perchloric acid without pre-oxidation with nitric acid. Do not wipe spillage with flammable material. Do not store on wooden shelves. Do not let perchloric acid come into contact with rubber.
39. Read labels before opening a chemical container. Use workplace labels for all prepared reagents indicating kind of reagent and concentration, date of preparation, date of expiry and the name of the person who prepared it. Good Laboratory Practice prescribes that all these particulars, including the amounts of components used, are recorded in the Reagents and Solutions Book .
Useful information can also be found on Internet e.g.,

4.2.5 First Aid

Every employee of a laboratory should have knowledge of emergency first aid and roughly one out of every ten employees of a whole institute should have a valid First Aid certificate including an endorsement for resuscitation. These qualifications should be mentioned on the Staff Record Form model PERS 012 . The management should encourage first aid training and the essential refresher courses by allowing time off and a periodical bonus.
Since no paragraph nor even a chapter can take the place of a proper first aid training, only some major practical aspects will be mentioned here to provide the basics of emergency first aid. These may be summarized in a SOP or Instruction. Essential Items and Equipment
1. Names and internal phone numbers of employees with First Aid certificate.
2. Telephone numbers of physicians and hospitals as well as the general emergency number.
3. First Aid kit
4. Eye wash fountains or bottles.
5. Safety showers (at least one per laboratory).
It is the (delegatable) responsibility of the head of laboratory that these items are in order. A check-list for regular inspection of these points should be made (and kept, for instance, with the First Aid kit).
Items 1 and 2 could be taken care of by issuing a sticker with this information to each employee (to be stuck onto or next to his/her telephone).
The First Aid kit should be the responsibility of one person who keeps a logbook of regular contents checks and purchased supplements. Tallying used materials from the First Aid kit in practice appears to be illusive. Also eye-wash equipment and safety showers need to be inspected regularly. When an eye-wash bottle has been used, it should be replaced or refilled and the expiration date revised. Emergency First Aid
Sometimes, in case of an accident, there is no time or possibility to await qualified help. In that case, the necessary help needs to be given by others. The most important general points to observe are listed here:
1. Stay calm, try to oversee the situation and watch out for danger.2. Try to find out what is wrong with the casualty.
3. Take care that the casualty keeps breathing. If breathing stops, try to apply artificial respiration by mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose insufflation. When unconscious, turn casualty on his/her side with the face tilted to the floor (support head by kind of cushion).
4. Staunch serious bleeding. If necessary, arterial bleeding may be stopped by pressing a thumb in the wound.
5. Do not move the casualty unless he/she is in a dangerous position (e.g., in case of gas, smoke, fire or electricity), then carefully move casualty to a safe place.
6. Put the casualty's mind at rest.
7. Call qualified help as soon as possible: medical service, a physician and/or an ambulance, and if necessary, the police. Do not leave casualty unattended.
A few specific accidents that may occur in the laboratory are the following:
Burns:Hold affected parts of the skin for at least 10 minutes in cold water. Try to keep the bum sterile and do not apply ointment.
Corrosive burns:(e.g. by hydrogen peroxide): wash the affected part of the skin thoroughly with water.
Eye (corrosive) burns:Wash eye thoroughly with tap water: use an eye fountain or eye-wash bottle or a tubing connected to a tap.
Hydrofluoric acid burn:Wash the affected part with dilute ammonia (1-2%) or sodium bicarbonate solution.
Poisoning by swallowing:

1. Corrosive solutions (acids, bases):Let the casualty drink one or two glasses of water to dilute the poison. Vomiting should not be induced.

2. Petroleum products.Do not induce vomiting (the products may get into the bronchial tubes).

3. Non-corrosive solutions (e.g. herbicides, fungicides):Try to induce vomiting. Swallow activated charcoal.
In all these cases must the casualty immediately be taken to a physician or hospital. Try to bring the original container (with or without some of the poison).

4.2.6 Fire fighting

As in the case of First Aid, a number of employees should be properly trained in fire fighting, this goes especially for laboratory personnel. Therefore, at this point only general instructions will be given to be applied when no qualified person can help in time. These instructions can be moulded into a Standard Instruction to be issued to each and every employee. Necessary items and equipment
1. Fire-proof blanket.2. Safety shower (at least one per laboratory).
3. Buckets with sand.
4. Portable fire extinguishers of essentially two types: CO2 or b.c.f. (halon, halogenated hydrocarbons) since these can be used without causing damage to electrical equipment. The extinguishing power of halon is about 6 times that of CO2! Water has the disadvantage that it conducts electricity, powder extinguishers (containing salts) cause damage to instruments. Actions
When fire is detected stay calm, try to oversee the situation and watch out for danger. Then the following actions should be taken in this order:
1. Close windows and doors.
2. Give fire alarm (shouting, telephone, fire alarm).
3. Rescue people (and animals if present).
4. Switch off electricity and/or gas supply.
5. Fight fire, if possible with at least two persons.
Persons with burning clothing should be wrapped in a blanket on the floor, sprayed with water or be pulled under a safety shower. A CO2 fire extinguisher can also be used, but do not spray in the face.
When using fire extinguishers it is important that the fire is fought at the seat of the fire i.e., at the bottom of the flames, not in the middle of the flames.
If gas cylinders are present there is the danger of explosion by overheating. If they cannot be removed, take cover and try to cool them with a fire-hose. When the situation looks hopeless, evacuate the building. Let everybody assemble outside and check if no one is missing. To practice this, a regular fire drill (once a year), should be held.
The management should have a calamity scenario drawn up for the whole institute as a Standard Instruction which is issued to each and every employee.

4.3 Admittance to the laboratory

In connection with safety and quality, only authorized persons have admittance to the laboratory blocks. These persons are: all laboratory staff, the Quality Assurance Officer and, usually, other professional officers employed by the institute. Others may only enter the laboratory after permission. This permission can be given by the head of laboratory or his/her deputy. The entrances should be marked with a sign "no admittance for unauthorized persons". In case of trainees, students, visitors etc., at least one laboratory staff member must be charged with their supervision or responsibility.


PROT 051 - The replacement of a gas cylinder
SAF 011 - Safety Logbook (Laboratory)
RF 031 - Stock record of chemicals

PROT 051 - The replacement of a gas cylinder

Page: 1#1

Model: PROT 051Version: 2Date: 95-03-14

Title: The replacement of a gas cylinder
To properly replace an empty pressure gas cylinder by a new one.
- PROTAcceptance delivery of goods
- PROTStorage of gases
- RFLogbook: Stock record of gases
Large spanner of correct size or shifting spanner. Detergent/soap solution with small paint brush.
4.1 General
1. A cylinder may only be changed by well-instructed qualified personnel,2. Ascertain yourself of the identity of the gas,
3. Ascertain that cylinder was properly labelled upon receipt (with date and initial). Add to label date of opening and initial.
4. Take note of the particular properties and dangers of the gas.
5. Take note of applicable instructions of supplier.
4.2 Procedure
1. Make sure all connected equipment is switched off.2. Close secondary valve in instrument room.
3. Close valve on cylinder.
4. Remove manifold from cylinder with (shifting) spanner of the correct size (do not use monkey wrench!).
5. Replace cylinder.
6. Connect manifold with (shifting) spanner of correct size (do not use monkey wrench!).
7. Open valve on cylinder and make sure connection is gas-tight. In case of any doubt, apply detergent solution to the connection with a brush: bubbling indicates a leak. Warning: never search for a leak with a naked flame! If a leak is suspected, immediately close main valve on cylinder and notify the management -which should decide what action should be taken to solve the problem (e.g., replace manifold or cylinder or both).
8. Check if pressure indicated by manifold is conform specification of supplier.
9. Close valve on cylinder when gas is not to be used for some time.
10. Enter replacement in gas/supply logbook.
11. Add to label of empty cylinder date of replacement and initial. Add label "EMPTY".
12. Notify the person in charge of gas stock (and of ordering new cylinders).
13. Notify any worker who might be waiting for the cylinder change.
QA Officer (sign.):Expiry date:

SAF 011 - Safety Logbook (Laboratory)

Page: 1 # ...

Model: SAF 011Version: 1Date: 96-02-27

Title: Safety Logbook (Laboratory)
Inspection / Problem / Action taken / Remarks
Sign. HoL

RF 031 - Stock record of chemicals

Page: 1 # 8

Model:Version: 2Updated: 96-07-01Sign.:

Title: Safety Logbook (Laboratory)
copies (locat.):· central stare (1)· fume cupboard (2)/(3)· Steel boxes (4) / (5)· shed (6)
lab. no.
order no.
1M1084Aluminium chloride, hexahydrate

2M1063Aluminium nitrate, nonahydrate

3M1095Aluminium oxide

4M00991-Amino-2-hydroxy-4-naftelene-sulfonic acid

5Ml 115Ammonium acetate

6M1136Ammonium carbonate

7Ml 145Ammonium chloride

8Ml 164Ammonium fluoride

9Ml 188Ammonium nitrate

10Ml 182Ammonium heptamolybdate, tetrahydrate

11M3792Ammonium iron(II)sulfate, hexahydrate

12M3776Ammonium iron(III)sulfate, dodecahydrate

13M1206Ammonium monohydrogenfosfate

14Ml 226Ammonium monovanadate

15Ml 192Ammonium oxalate, monohydrate

16M1217Ammonium sulfate

17M4282Gum Arabic

18M8127Ascorbic acid

19M1703Barium acetate

20M1714Barium carbonate

21M1717Barium chloride, dihydrate

22M0255Diphenylamine-4-sulfonic acid barium salt

23M1737Barium hydroxide, octahydrate

24K7375Bolus alba (kaolin)

25M0165Boric acid


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